Economic Security
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity

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Source: U.S. Census Bureau

What does this measure?

The proportion of households broken out by race and ethnicity that participate in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as food stamps).

Why is this important?

The SNAP program provides government funding for low-income people to buy food. It therefore indicates how many people in a region cannot support themselves at a basic level. Differences among racial and ethnic groups may reflect the economic health of these groups, as well as potential disparities in access to economic opportunity.

How is our region performing?

In 2015-19, 42% of black or African Americans and 40% of Hispanic or Latinos in our region participated in the SNAP program, in comparison to 10% of whites and 13% of Asians. While white participation rates were on par with state and national levels, Hispanic or Latino and black or African American participation rates were roughly 1.4 to 2.0 that of state and national levels. Hispanic or Latino participation at the regional level increased by 1 percentage point from 2010-14 to 2015-19, a greater increase than Hispanic or Latino participation at the state or national level over the same time frame.

Within our region, Monroe County had a participation rate of 42% for blacks or African Americans and 42% for Hispanic or Latinos, compared to a rate of 10% for whites and a 13% for Asian residents. This is largely driven by the City of Rochester, which had a rate of 48% for black or African-Americans and 52% for Hispanic or Latinos, and a rate of 24% for whites.

Why do these disparities exist?

Historic and current policies and systems, from racist housing policies to employment discrimination to education systems that fail to equitably serve all populations, have prevented people of color from fully participating in our economy, locking them out of economic opportunity. This has increased the need for some groups to access programs to support basic needs such as SNAP.

Notes about the data

The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). Studies have found that ACS estimates of enrollment in public benefit programs tend to underestimate the true rate. The estimates reported above should be considered a lower bound of the true estimate. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census.

Studies have found that national survey estimates (including the ACS) of enrollment in public benefit programs tend to underestimate the true rate due to underreporting by participants, when compared with state-level administrative data. Underreporting can occur for a variety of reasons, including the social stigma of program participation and participants' confusion about the source of the services they receive. For these reasons, the estimates reported above should be considered a lower bound of the true estimate.

Data for this indicator are expected to be released in December.

Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity, 2015-19
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
United States7%25%20%9%
NYS13%27%29%10%
NYS (excluding NYC)8%27%19%9%
Region13%42%40%10%
Monroe13%42%42%10%
Surrounding Counties9%******37%31%10%
Genesee11%******37%****23%******11%
Livingston15%******36%****32%****11%
Ontario2%******42%**49%**8%
Orleans3%******18%******25%******15%
Seneca18%******40%******23%******10%
Wayne12%******49%**20%****11%
WyomingN/A******9%******6%******10%
YatesN/A******3%******47%******9%
Rochester24%**48%52%24%
Batavia26%******33%******32%******20%
CanandaiguaN/A******67%******N/A******11%**
GenevaN/A******56%**57%**15%**

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity, 2015-19
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
United States399,0453,730,6223,110,1078,467,805
NYS69,479293,702333,689498,145
NYS (excluding NYC)10,20893,05163,323315,347
Region1,21319,2569,82541,228
Monroe1,10117,9188,41623,174
Surrounding Counties112******1,3381,40918,054
Genesee14******264****122******2,383
Livingston39******107****164****2,621
Ontario6******431**684**3,390
Orleans2******99******142******2,312
Seneca23******55******59******1,334
Wayne28******374**180****3,691
Wyoming0******5******14******1,572
Yates0******3******44******751
Rochester430**15,3586,76111,010
Batavia10******146******50******1,116
Canandaigua0******60******0******506**
Geneva0******258**351**565**

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity, 2010-14
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
United States7%28%22%10%
NYS13%28%32%10%
NYS (excluding NYC)7%30%21%9%
Region9%**41%39%9%
Monroe9%**42%41%8%
Surrounding Counties4%******32%**30%11%
Genesee6%******44%****25%******9%
Livingston2%******48%******53%**12%
Ontario3%******16%****31%****9%
Orleans6%******27%******38%******16%
Seneca24%******39%******38%******10%
WayneN/A******35%****19%****11%
WyomingN/A******N/A******15%******10%
YatesN/A******21%******18%******13%
Rochester32%**48%50%22%
BataviaN/A******62%****52%******16%
CanandaiguaN/A******N/A******60%******15%**
Geneva32%******29%******40%****17%**

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity, 2010-14
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
United States363,8383,941,1543,124,5989,188,536
NYS62,648302,248342,970515,147
NYS (excluding NYC)8,15695,96560,537322,236
Region789**18,5468,38439,198
Monroe754**17,4497,32520,069
Surrounding Counties35******1,097**1,05919,129
Genesee4******274****102******2,109
Livingston4******118******217**2,778
Ontario10******127****381****3,873
Orleans4******153******122******2,448
Seneca13******99******47******1,325
Wayne0******312****155****3,826
Wyoming0******0******16******1,504
Yates0******14******19******1,266
Rochester639**15,2506,0279,898
Batavia0******251****84******915
Canandaigua0******0******50******686**
Geneva10******109******231****677**

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.







Worse than NYS by 10% or more
Up to 10% worse than NYS
Equal to or better than NYS


INDICATORS - Grouped by Topic REGIONAL VALUE YEAR NYS COMPARISON TREND | REGION
Prenatal Care 78% 2018 3 1
Increasing
Prenatal Care, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable*
Babies Born with Low Birth Weights 8.1% 2018 2 1
Increasing
Babies Born with Low Birth Weights, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Infant Mortality Rate 7.0 2016-18 2 1
Increasing
Infant Mortality Rate, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels 0.9% 2016 2 -1
Decreasing
Children in Poverty 19% 2015-19 3 1
Increasing
Children in Poverty, Race/Ethnicity 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
Single-Parent Families 39% 2015-19 2 1
Increasing
Single-Parent Families, by Race/Ethnicity 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
Rate of Child Abuse and Neglect 21 2019 2 1
Increasing
Rate of Foster Care Admissions 2.4 2019 2 -1
Decreasing
Rate of Teen Pregnancy 1.3% 2018 3 -1
Decreasing
Rate of Teen Births 12 2018 3 -1
Decreasing
Arts and Culture Attendance 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Tourism Spending $1,473 2019 1 1
Increasing
Recreation Spending $84 2019 1 1
Increasing
Voter Registration Rate 83% 2019 3 1
Increasing
Voter Participation Rate 46% 2018 3 -1
Decreasing
Registered Library Borrowers 59% 2018 2 -1
Decreasing
Library Visits 5.6 2018 3 -1
Decreasing
Charitable Contributions as a Percentage of Income 0.9% 2018 2 0
Maintaining
Households Without Vehicles 10% 2015-19 3 0
Maintaining
Total Population 0.1% 2019 2 0
Maintaining
Population by Age 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
Population by Race/Ethnicity 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
Population by Age and Race/Ethnicity 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
Disengaged Youth, Ages 16 to 19 6% 2015-19 3 -1
Decreasing
Median Household Income $59,871 2015-19 1 -1
Decreasing
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living in Poverty 13% 2015-19 3 1
Increasing
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
Public Assistance Recipients 1.9% 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
Approval Rate for Public Assistance Applications 24% 2019 0 -1
Decreasing
Households Receiving SNAP 14% 2015-19 3 1
Increasing
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
Tax Filers Receiving Earned Income Tax Credit 15% 2018 3 -1
Decreasing
EITC Dollars $172 2018 1 -1
Decreasing
Change in Total Jobs 0.7% 2019 2 0
Maintaining
Change in Number of Business Establishments by Sector 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Change in Jobs by Sector 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Sector Shares of Regional Total Employment 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Unemployment Rate 4.1% 2019 2 0
Maintaining
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
Average Salary by Sector 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Change in Average Salary Since 2000 4% 2019 3 1
Increasing
Change in Average Salary Since 2000 by Sector 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Employment-to-Population Ratio 60% 2015-19 3 -1
Decreasing
Per-Capita Spending for Local Government $3,590 2018 0 1
Increasing
Prekindergarten Participation 45% 2018 2 1
Increasing
School Spending Per Student $23,807 2019 1 1
Increasing
Instructional Spending Per Student $17,112 2019 1 1
Increasing
Students Receiving Special Education Services 9% 2019 3 1
Increasing
Grade 3 English 44% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Grade 3 English by Student Subgroup 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 3 English by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 3 Math 49% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Grade 3 Math by Student Subgroup 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 3 Math by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 8 English 39% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Grade 8 English by Student Subgroup 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 8 English by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 8 Math 49% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Regents Algebra 1 73% 2019 3 1
Increasing
Regents English 83% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Four-Year Cohort Graduation Rate 88% 2020 3 1
Increasing
Cohort Graduation Rate, Beyond Four Years 88% 2020 3 1
Increasing
Four-Year Cohort Graduation Rate by Race/Ethnicity 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Education Levels of Adults 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Without Health Insurance 5% 2018 3 -1
Decreasing
Supply of Doctors 35.1 2018 1 1
Increasing
Mortality Rate 697 2018 1 -1
Decreasing
Chlamydia Rate 55 2018 3 1
Increasing
Chlamydia Rates, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Gonorrhea Rate 18 2018 3 -1
Decreasing
Gonorrhea Rates, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Early Syphilis Rates 1.8 2018 3 1
Increasing
Early Syphilis Rates within Monroe County, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living with HIV 103 2018 0 1
Increasing
People Living with HIV by Race/Ethnicity 2018 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living with AIDS 136 2018 0 1
Increasing
People Living with AIDS by Race/Ethnicity 2018 0 10 Not Applicable*
Percent of Days with Good Air Quality 0 10 Not Applicable*
Alcohol-related Crashes 3.0 2019 2 -1
Decreasing
Median Home Value $139,622 2015-19 1 0
Maintaining
Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment by Primary Substance 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Median Rental Prices $878 2015-19 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Homeowners 2.3 2015-19 3 0
Maintaining
Housing Affordability for Homeowners by Race/Ethnicity 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
Overall Housing Cost Burden 29% 2015-19 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Renters 33% 2015-19 3 10 Not Applicable*
Rent Burdened Households 49% 2015-19 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Renters by Race/Ethnicity 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
Homeownership Rate 68% 2015-19 3 -1
Decreasing
Homeownership Rate by Race/Ethnicity 2015-19 0 10 Not Applicable*
Vacant Housing Units 10% 2015-19 3 1
Increasing
Homeless Persons 0 10 Not Applicable*
Serious Crimes 181 2019 2 -1
Decreasing
Violent Crimes 24 2019 3 1
Increasing
Victims of Domestic Violence 59 2019 0 -1
Decreasing
Incarceration Rates 12.9 2019 0 -1
Decreasing
Incarceration Rates, by Race/Ethnicity 2015 0 10 Not Applicable*
Arrest Rates 170.5 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
Arrest Rates, by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
*No or multiple regional values for this indicator


Worse than NYS by 10% or more
Up to 10% worse than NYS
Equal to or better than NYS





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