Economic Security
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity

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Source: U.S. Census Bureau

What does this measure?

The proportion of households broken out by race and ethnicity that participate in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as food stamps).

Why is this important?

The SNAP program provides government funding for low-income people to buy food. It therefore indicates how many people in a region cannot support themselves at a basic level. Differences among racial and ethnic groups may reflect the economic health of these groups, as well as potential disparities in access to economic opportunity.

How is our region performing?

In 2016-20, 38% of black or African Americans and 36% of Hispanic or Latinos in our region reported participating in the SNAP program, in comparison to 10% of whites and 14% of Asians. While white participation rates were on par with state and national levels, Hispanic or Latino and black or African American participation rates were higher than state and national levels. Hispanic or Latino participation at the regional level decreased by 4 percentage points from 2011-15 to 2016-20, a greater decrease than Hispanic or Latino participation at the national level and on par with the state over the same time frame.

Within our region, Monroe County had a participation rate of 39% for blacks or African Americans and 38% for Hispanic or Latinos, compared to a rate of 9% for whites and a 15% for Asian residents. This is largely driven by the City of Rochester, which had a rate of 45% for black or African Americans and 50% for Hispanic or Latinos, and a rate of 22% for whites.

Why do these disparities exist?

Historic and current policies and systems, from racist housing policies to employment discrimination to education systems that fail to equitably serve all populations, have prevented people of color from fully participating in our economy, locking them out of economic opportunity. This has increased the need for some groups to access programs to support basic needs such as SNAP.

Notes about the data

The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). Studies have found that ACS estimates of enrollment in public benefit programs tend to underestimate the true rate. The estimates reported above should be considered a lower bound of the true estimate. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census.

Studies have found that national survey estimates (including the ACS) of enrollment in public benefit programs tend to underestimate the true rate due to underreporting by participants, when compared with state-level administrative data. Underreporting can occur for a variety of reasons, including the social stigma of program participation and participants' confusion about the source of the services they receive. For these reasons, the estimates reported above should be considered a lower bound of the true figure.

Data for this indicator are expected to be released in December.

Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity, 2016-20
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS13%26%28%10%
NYS (excluding NYC)8%26%18%9%
Region14%*38%36%10%
Monroe15%*39%38%9%
Surrounding Counties8%***33%*25%10%
Genesee13%***30%***22%***12%
Livingston11%***35%**34%**10%
Ontario1%***35%**38%*8%
Orleans6%***21%***20%***14%
Seneca6%***22%***14%***10%
Wayne14%***51%**13%***9%
Wyoming0%***14%***5%***9%
Yates0%***7%***52%***9%*
Monroe County Local Areas
Rochester24%**45%50%22%
Churchville (V)0%***0%***0%***6%***
Spencerport (V)0%***N/A***N/A***12%***
Honeoye Falls (V)0%***N/A***N/A***7%***
Penfield0%***16%***12%***3%*
HamlinN/A***0%***0%***10%**
Pittsford5%***0%***0%***1%***
Brighton6%***27%***8%***3%*
Irondequoit27%***16%**32%**8%
Rush0%***0%***0%***6%***
Brockport (V)0%***0%***0%***12%**
Clarkson0%***0%***6%***5%***
Ogden0%***0%***43%***8%*
Webster12%***22%***23%***6%*
Gates6%***20%*30%***8%*
Scottsville (V)100%***39%***100%***6%***
Fairport (V)N/A***N/A***0%***12%***
Webster (V)0%***44%***58%***16%**
Hilton (V)N/A***0%***0%***14%***
Pittsford (V)0%***N/A***0%***1%***
Greece28%***24%*23%**9%
Perinton8%***30%***8%***4%**
Henrietta16%**22%***8%***6%*
Riga0%***0%***0%***8%***
Chili31%***31%**0%***5%*
Mendon0%***0%***0%***4%***
Sweden0%***0%***19%***10%*
East Rochester0%***74%***11%***10%*
Parma0%***0%***38%***8%***
Wheatland100%***34%***100%***8%***
Regional Cities
Batavia16%***33%***32%***20%
Canandaigua0%***70%***20%***12%*
Geneva0%***51%**46%*16%*

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity, 2016-20
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS70,559285,199324,607476,247
NYS (excluding NYC)10,52290,28160,584303,896
Region1,318*17,7989,26339,848
Monroe1,218*16,5558,10322,403
Surrounding Counties100***1,243*1,16017,445
Genesee16***182***99***2,656
Livingston33***105**163**2,337
Ontario4***377**530*3,629
Orleans5***143***103***2,235
Seneca8***41***40***1,285
Wayne34***378**130***3,141
Wyoming0***12***15***1,348
Yates0***5***80***814*
Monroe County Local Areas
Rochester490**14,2606,47610,046
Churchville (V)0***0***0***57***
Spencerport (V)0***0***0***180***
Honeoye Falls (V)0***0***0***81***
Penfield0***47***47***385*
Hamlin0***0***0***360**
Pittsford40***0***0***90***
Brighton77***192***29***437*
Irondequoit75***286**481**1,578
Rush0***0***0***75***
Brockport (V)0***0***0***258**
Clarkson0***0***22***136***
Ogden0***0***49***569*
Webster57***83***129***1,041*
Gates12***279*158***787*
Scottsville (V)7***14***10***51***
Fairport (V)0***0***0***315***
Webster (V)0***50***99***424**
Hilton (V)0***0***0***278***
Pittsford (V)0***0***0***7***
Greece143***740*501**3,218
Perinton45***74***35***784**
Henrietta224**288***49***775*
Riga0***0***0***158***
Chili48***237**0***515*
Mendon0***0***0***144***
Sweden0***0***44***425*
East Rochester0***43***9***273*
Parma0***0***64***453***
Wheatland7***26***10***154***
Regional Cities
Batavia9***154***61***1,148
Canandaigua0***43***34***536*
Geneva0***202**264*663*

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity, 2011-15
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS14%28%32%10%
NYS (excluding NYC)7%30%21%9%
Region10%*43%40%10%
Monroe10%*43%41%9%
Surrounding Counties5%***34%35%11%
Genesee4%***48%**30%***10%
Livingston5%***44%***47%*12%
Ontario4%***29%*45%9%
Orleans3%***23%***34%***17%
Seneca27%***63%***36%***11%
Wayne0%***33%**22%*12%
Wyoming0%***0%***6%***11%
Yates0%***12%***17%***13%
Monroe County Local Areas
Rochester34%*49%50%23%
ClarksonN/A***0%***11%***11%**
Webster0%***8%***28%***6%*
Hilton (V)N/A***100%***0%***7%***
HamlinN/A***0%***0%***10%*
Scottsville (V)0%***80%***92%***9%***
Ogden0%***0%***6%***4%*
Pittsford2%***36%***0%***1%**
Riga0%***0%***0%***8%***
Churchville (V)N/A***0%***0%***3%***
East Rochester0%***44%***46%***11%**
Wheatland0%***55%***92%***5%***
Honeoye Falls (V)N/A***N/A***0%***4%***
Henrietta5%***11%***8%***7%*
Spencerport (V)N/A***0%***0%***3%***
Parma0%***50%***0%***5%**
Brighton0%***17%***6%***3%**
RushN/A***N/A***0%***4%***
Fairport (V)29%***N/A***0%***4%***
Gates9%***17%**33%***9%*
Pittsford (V)0%***0%***0%***3%***
Irondequoit6%***27%*31%**6%*
Brockport (V)0%***0%***0%***10%**
Webster (V)0%***42%***66%***27%*
Penfield5%***7%***21%***3%*
Chili0%***35%**17%***5%*
Sweden0%***18%***0%***8%**
Greece1%***24%*30%**7%
MendonN/A***N/A***0%***2%***
Perinton6%***42%***25%***5%*
Regional Cities
Batavia0%***70%**59%***18%
Canandaigua0%***0%***67%***15%
Geneva29%***42%**58%*18%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity, 2011-15
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS65,897303,367347,437526,939
NYS (excluding NYC)8,82197,86262,836332,651
Region880*19,1288,99041,516
Monroe831*17,9747,62221,246
Surrounding Counties49***1,1541,36820,270
Genesee3***289**122***2,325
Livingston11***117***225*2,896
Ontario11***231*5953,962
Orleans2***119***142***2,621
Seneca22***79***67***1,389
Wayne0***308**191*4,125
Wyoming0***0***7***1,680
Yates0***11***19***1,272
Monroe County Local Areas
Rochester656*15,7666,12210,321
Clarkson0***0***18***255**
Webster0***14***70***1,004*
Hilton (V)0***45***0***160***
Hamlin0***0***0***312*
Scottsville (V)0***49***44***77***
Ogden0***0***11***297*
Pittsford11***51***0***103**
Riga0***0***0***167***
Churchville (V)0***0***0***28***
East Rochester0***74***41***294**
Wheatland0***70***44***95***
Honeoye Falls (V)0***0***0***46***
Henrietta53***143***32***904*
Spencerport (V)0***0***0***48***
Parma0***45***0***280**
Brighton4***116***32***361**
Rush0***0***0***52***
Fairport (V)18***0***0***104***
Gates30***181**166***913*
Pittsford (V)0***0***0***17***
Irondequoit18***497*426**1,196*
Brockport (V)0***0***0***227**
Webster (V)0***14***63***545*
Penfield16***16***54***417*
Chili0***291**56***462*
Sweden0***13***0***342**
Greece6***625*470**2,564
Mendon0***0***0***73***
Perinton37***72***80***834*
Regional Cities
Batavia0***238**83***1,027
Canandaigua0***0***50***689
Geneva11***187**363*725

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.







Worse than NYS by 10% or more
Up to 10% worse than NYS
Equal to or better than NYS


INDICATORS - Grouped by Topic REGIONAL VALUE YEAR NYS COMPARISON TREND | REGION
Prenatal Care 78% 2018 3 1
Increasing
Prenatal Care, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable*
Babies Born with Low Birth Weights 8.4% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Babies Born with Low Birth Weights, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Infant Mortality Rate 6.9 2017-19 2 0
Maintaining
Infant Mortality Rate, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels 0.8% 2018 2 -1
Decreasing
Children in Poverty 19% 2016-20 3 1
Increasing
Children in Poverty, Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Single-Parent Families 39% 2016-20 2 1
Increasing
Single-Parent Families, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Rate of Child Abuse and Neglect 20 2020 2 1
Increasing
Rate of Foster Care Admissions 1.8 2020 2 -1
Decreasing
Rate of Teen Pregnancy 1.3% 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
Rate of Teen Births 12 2019 2 -1
Decreasing
Arts and Culture Attendance 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Tourism Spending $894 2020 1 -1
Decreasing
Recreation Spending $52 2020 1 -1
Decreasing
Voter Registration Rate 83% 2020 2 1
Increasing
Voter Participation Rate 64% 2020 3 1
Increasing
Registered Library Borrowers 58% 2019 2 -1
Decreasing
Library Visits 5.4 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
Charitable Contributions as a Percentage of Income 0.8% 2019 2 -1
Decreasing
Households Without Vehicles 10% 2016-20 3 0
Maintaining
Total Population 1.9% 2020 2 1
Increasing
Population by Age 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Population by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Population by Age and Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Disengaged Youth, Ages 16 to 19 6% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Median Household Income $61,376 2016-20 1 -1
Decreasing
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living in Poverty 13% 2016-20 3 1
Increasing
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living in Poverty, by Sex 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Public Assistance Recipients 1.7% 2020 3 -1
Decreasing
Approval Rate for Public Assistance Applications 24% 2020 0 -1
Decreasing
Females Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Seniors Living in Poverty, by Sex 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Households Receiving SNAP 13% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Female Seniors Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Tax Filers Receiving Earned Income Tax Credit 15% 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
EITC Dollars $173 2019 1 -1
Decreasing
Change in Total Jobs -8% 2020 3 -1
Decreasing
Change in Number of Business Establishments by Sector 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Change in Jobs by Sector 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Sector Shares of Regional Total Employment 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Unemployment Rate 8.1% 2020 3 1
Increasing
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Average Salary by Sector 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Change in Average Salary Since 2000 12% 2020 3 1
Increasing
Change in Average Salary Since 2000 by Sector 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Employment-to-Population Ratio 60% 2016-20 2 -1
Decreasing
Prekindergarten Participation 58% 2020 3 1
Increasing
School Spending Per Student $23,561 2020 1 1
Increasing
Instructional Spending Per Student $16,983 2020 1 1
Increasing
Students Receiving Special Education Services 2021 0 -1
Decreasing
Grade 3 English 44% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Grade 3 English by Student Subgroup 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 3 English by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 3 Math 49% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Grade 3 Math by Student Subgroup 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 3 Math by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 8 English 39% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Grade 8 English by Student Subgroup 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 8 English by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 8 Math 49% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Regents Algebra 1 73% 2019 3 1
Increasing
Regents English 83% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Four-Year Cohort Graduation Rate 89% 2021 3 1
Increasing
Cohort Graduation Rate, Beyond Four Years 89% 2021 3 1
Increasing
Four-Year Cohort Graduation Rate by Race/Ethnicity 2021 0 10 Not Applicable*
Education Levels of Adults 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Without Health Insurance 4% 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
Supply of Doctors 35.3 2019 1 1
Increasing
Mortality Rate 693 2019 1 -1
Decreasing
Chlamydia Rate 55 2018 3 1
Increasing
Chlamydia Rates, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Gonorrhea Rate 18 2018 3 -1
Decreasing
Maternal Health, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-18 0 10 Not Applicable*
Gonorrhea Rates, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Early Syphilis Rates 1.8 2018 3 1
Increasing
Early Syphilis Rates within Monroe County, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living with HIV 104 2019 0 1
Increasing
People Living with HIV by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living with AIDS 132 2019 0 1
Increasing
People Living with AIDS by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Percent of Days with Good Air Quality 0 10 Not Applicable*
Alcohol-related Crashes 2.5 2020 2 -1
Decreasing
Median Home Value $143,640 2016-20 1 1
Increasing
Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment by Primary Substance 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Median Rental Prices $896 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Homeowners 2.3 2016-20 3 0
Maintaining
Housing Affordability for Homeowners by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Overall Housing Cost Burden 28% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Renters 32% 2016-20 3 10 Not Applicable*
Rent Burdened Households 47% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Renters by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Homeownership Rate 68% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Homeownership Rate by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Vacant Housing Units 9% 2016-20 3 1
Increasing
Homeless Persons 0 10 Not Applicable*
Serious Crimes 170 2020 3 -1
Decreasing
Violent Crimes 24 2020 3 1
Increasing
Victims of Domestic Violence 57 2020 0 -1
Decreasing
Incarceration Rates 8.7 2020 0 -1
Decreasing
Incarceration Rates, by Race/Ethnicity 2018 0 10 Not Applicable*
Arrest Rates 130.1 2020 2 -1
Decreasing
Arrest Rates, by Race/Ethnicity 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Per-Capita Spending for Local Government $3,731 2019 0 1
Increasing
Female to Male Earnings Ratio 0.68 2016-20 3 0
Maintaining
*No or multiple regional values for this indicator


Worse than NYS by 10% or more
Up to 10% worse than NYS
Equal to or better than NYS





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