Economy
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity

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Source: U.S. Census Bureau

What does this measure?

The unemployment rate for racial and ethnic groups in a geographic area. Unemployed individuals are those without jobs who are able, available and seeking work; the rate presents them as a share of the total labor force.

Why is this important?

Unemployment rates are a relatively timely indicator of current local economic conditions, particularly recent changes in the employment landscape that reflect the overall health of the economy.

How is our region performing?

In 2016-20, the region's unemployment rate was 10.1% for African American workers and 9.8% for Hispanic workers, compared to 3.8% for Asian workers and 4% for white workers. While there were racial and ethnic disparities in unemployment at the state and national levels as well, the differences were greater in our region. For example, compared to our region, statewide unemployment rates were lower in 2016-20 for African American (8.9%) and Hispanic workers (7.4%), and slightly higher for Asian (4.9%) and white (4.6%) workers. Unemployment rates for all racial and ethnic groups in the City of Rochester were similar to the region as a whole in 2016-20. Reliable figures were not available, however, for surrounding communities or counties.

Since 2000, the region's unemployment rate declined 3.3 percentage points among African American workers, 2.7 points among Hispanic workers, 6 points among Asian residents, and less than 1 point among white workers.

Why do these disparities exist?

While traditional explanations for employment rate disparities focus on education and training gaps, whites tend to be employed at higher rates than Blacks and other people of color at every education level (high school, some college, bachelor's degree, etc.). This has led many researchers to focus on labor market discrimination as a primary cause of higher unemployment among people of color. However, it is also true that education levels are generally lower for people of color, suggesting that the education system's failure to equitably serve people of color is also a contributing factor.

Notes about the data

The multi-year figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census.

Data on unemployment by race and ethnicity is only available from the American Community Survey, and it is somewhat different from the total population unemployment data produced by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics using responses to the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. Two different survey methodologies are used (ACS responses are collected by mail, phone and in person; CPS uses phone and in-person interviews), CPS questions on employment are more detailed, and CPS requires that someone be "actively" searching for work (interviewing, calling contacts) in order to qualify as unemployed. In addition, the ACS estimates used here cover a 5-year period, compared to an annual average of monthly estimates presented in the general unemployment indicator. In 2009, the annual unemployment estimates for the nation from the two surveys varied, with ACS at 9.9% and CPS at 9.3%. Data for this indicator are expected to be released in the fourth quarter.

Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2016-20
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS4.9%8.9%7.4%4.6%
NYS (excluding NYC)4.2%8.2%6.0%4.5%
Region3.8%**10.1%9.9%4.0%
Monroe3.8%*10.2%10.5%4.1%
Surrounding Counties3.9%***8.9%**7.5%*3.7%
Genesee0.0%***1.6%***12.5%***3.8%
Livingston0.0%***5.3%***6.6%***3.9%*
Ontario1.1%***3.5%***5.8%***3.3%
Orleans0.0%***17.2%***24.1%**5.3%*
Seneca4.1%***1.8%***3.3%***3.7%*
Wayne0.0%***25.3%***2.1%***3.1%
Wyoming51.9%***0.0%***4.5%***4.6%*
Yates32.5%***0.0%***0.0%***3.8%*
Monroe County Local Areas
Rochester6.9%***12.6%12.3%6.0%
Churchville (V)0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***5.0%***
Spencerport (V)0.0%***0.0%***N/A***2.3%***
Honeoye Falls (V)N/A***0.0%***N/A***8.1%***
Gates6.7%***2.6%***4.6%***2.5%*
Penfield4.7%***0.0%***5.9%***3.2%**
HamlinN/A***0.0%***11.9%***4.5%**
Pittsford2.3%***0.0%***3.7%***2.5%**
Brighton5.3%***9.8%***8.4%***5.0%*
Irondequoit4.8%***5.0%***15.1%***3.3%*
Rush0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***0.9%***
Brockport (V)22.8%***15.2%***4.4%***5.9%**
Clarkson0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***1.9%***
Ogden7.0%***0.0%***17.5%***3.4%**
Webster2.2%***4.4%***7.3%***2.7%*
Fairport (V)0.0%***N/A***0.0%***3.9%***
Webster (V)0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***4.9%***
Hilton (V)N/A***0.0%***0.0%***9.1%***
Pittsford (V)0.0%***N/A***0.0%***2.8%***
Scottsville (V)0.0%***9.7%***11.1%***1.7%***
East Rochester0.0%***22.1%***0.0%***4.5%***
Parma0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***7.3%**
Wheatland0.0%***6.5%***8.7%***3.3%***
Greece2.2%***3.1%***6.9%***4.2%
Perinton0.4%***7.4%***22.3%***2.7%*
Henrietta0.3%***5.7%***3.8%***4.7%**
Riga0.0%***0.0%***25.8%***5.9%***
Chili3.3%***7.7%***0.0%***4.2%*
Mendon0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***3.5%***
Sweden19.1%***10.6%***5.6%***5.6%*
Regional Cities
Batavia0.0%***0.0%***11.3%***4.4%**
Canandaigua0.0%***0.0%***13.8%***3.1%***
Geneva0.0%***4.0%***5.0%***1.3%***

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number Unemployed by Race/Ethnicity, 2016-20
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS43,265130,697134,499293,565
NYS (excluding NYC)10,12240,13038,119202,498
Region601**5,6683,70020,469
Monroe520*5,2513,15312,482
Surrounding Counties81***417**547*7,987
Genesee0***12***97***1,079
Livingston0***22***54***1,112*
Ontario7***35***137***1,747
Orleans0***104***198**900*
Seneca6***4***11***561*
Wayne0***240***34***1,331
Wyoming55***0***16***831*
Yates13***0***0***426*
Monroe County Local Areas
Rochester222***4,4702,0073,193
Churchville (V)0***0***0***57***
Spencerport (V)0***0***0***44***
Honeoye Falls (V)0***0***0***123***
Gates33***55***51***307*
Penfield30***0***40***574**
Hamlin0***0***7***202**
Pittsford30***0***17***305**
Brighton80***103***75***761*
Irondequoit32***113***324***753*
Rush0***0***0***16***
Brockport (V)21***40***10***219**
Clarkson0***0***0***60***
Ogden6***0***77***362**
Webster16***19***51***595*
Fairport (V)0***0***0***105***
Webster (V)0***0***0***138***
Hilton (V)0***0***0***250***
Pittsford (V)0***0***0***24***
Scottsville (V)0***3***6***19***
East Rochester0***60***0***160***
Parma0***0***0***573**
Wheatland0***3***6***86***
Greece24***123***255***1,885
Perinton3***31***159***602*
Henrietta7***120***47***768**
Riga0***0***16***174***
Chili16***114***0***567*
Mendon0***0***0***176***
Sweden21***40***21***363*
Regional Cities
Batavia0***0***36***280**
Canandaigua0***0***58***160***
Geneva0***14***37***71***

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.











Worse than NYS by 10% or more
Up to 10% worse than NYS
Equal to or better than NYS


INDICATORS - Grouped by Topic REGIONAL VALUE YEAR NYS COMPARISON TREND | REGION
Prenatal Care 78% 2018 3 1
Increasing
Prenatal Care, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable*
Babies Born with Low Birth Weights 8.4% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Babies Born with Low Birth Weights, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Infant Mortality Rate 6.9 2017-19 2 0
Maintaining
Infant Mortality Rate, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels 0.8% 2018 2 -1
Decreasing
Children in Poverty 19% 2016-20 3 1
Increasing
Children in Poverty, Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Single-Parent Families 39% 2016-20 2 1
Increasing
Single-Parent Families, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Rate of Child Abuse and Neglect 20 2020 2 1
Increasing
Rate of Foster Care Admissions 1.8 2020 2 -1
Decreasing
Rate of Teen Pregnancy 1.3% 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
Rate of Teen Births 12 2019 2 -1
Decreasing
Arts and Culture Attendance 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Tourism Spending $894 2020 1 -1
Decreasing
Recreation Spending $52 2020 1 -1
Decreasing
Voter Registration Rate 83% 2020 2 1
Increasing
Voter Participation Rate 64% 2020 3 1
Increasing
Registered Library Borrowers 58% 2019 2 -1
Decreasing
Library Visits 5.4 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
Charitable Contributions as a Percentage of Income 0.8% 2019 2 -1
Decreasing
Households Without Vehicles 10% 2016-20 3 0
Maintaining
Total Population 1.9% 2020 2 1
Increasing
Population by Age 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Population by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Population by Age and Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Disengaged Youth, Ages 16 to 19 6% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Median Household Income $61,376 2016-20 1 -1
Decreasing
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living in Poverty 13% 2016-20 3 1
Increasing
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living in Poverty, by Sex 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Public Assistance Recipients 1.7% 2020 3 -1
Decreasing
Approval Rate for Public Assistance Applications 24% 2020 0 -1
Decreasing
Females Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Seniors Living in Poverty, by Sex 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Households Receiving SNAP 13% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Female Seniors Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Tax Filers Receiving Earned Income Tax Credit 15% 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
EITC Dollars $173 2019 1 -1
Decreasing
Change in Total Jobs -8% 2020 3 -1
Decreasing
Change in Number of Business Establishments by Sector 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Change in Jobs by Sector 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Sector Shares of Regional Total Employment 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Unemployment Rate 8.1% 2020 3 1
Increasing
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Average Salary by Sector 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Change in Average Salary Since 2000 12% 2020 3 1
Increasing
Change in Average Salary Since 2000 by Sector 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Employment-to-Population Ratio 60% 2016-20 2 -1
Decreasing
Prekindergarten Participation 58% 2020 3 1
Increasing
School Spending Per Student $23,561 2020 1 1
Increasing
Instructional Spending Per Student $16,983 2020 1 1
Increasing
Students Receiving Special Education Services 2021 0 -1
Decreasing
Grade 3 English 44% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Grade 3 English by Student Subgroup 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 3 English by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 3 Math 49% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Grade 3 Math by Student Subgroup 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 3 Math by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 8 English 39% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Grade 8 English by Student Subgroup 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 8 English by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Grade 8 Math 49% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Regents Algebra 1 73% 2019 3 1
Increasing
Regents English 83% 2019 2 1
Increasing
Four-Year Cohort Graduation Rate 89% 2021 3 1
Increasing
Cohort Graduation Rate, Beyond Four Years 89% 2021 3 1
Increasing
Four-Year Cohort Graduation Rate by Race/Ethnicity 2021 0 10 Not Applicable*
Education Levels of Adults 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Without Health Insurance 4% 2019 3 -1
Decreasing
Supply of Doctors 35.3 2019 1 1
Increasing
Mortality Rate 693 2019 1 -1
Decreasing
Chlamydia Rate 55 2018 3 1
Increasing
Chlamydia Rates, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Gonorrhea Rate 18 2018 3 -1
Decreasing
Maternal Health, by Race/Ethnicity 2016-18 0 10 Not Applicable*
Gonorrhea Rates, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable*
Early Syphilis Rates 1.8 2018 3 1
Increasing
Early Syphilis Rates within Monroe County, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living with HIV 104 2019 0 1
Increasing
People Living with HIV by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
People Living with AIDS 132 2019 0 1
Increasing
People Living with AIDS by Race/Ethnicity 2019 0 10 Not Applicable*
Percent of Days with Good Air Quality 0 10 Not Applicable*
Alcohol-related Crashes 2.5 2020 2 -1
Decreasing
Median Home Value $143,640 2016-20 1 1
Increasing
Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment by Primary Substance 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Median Rental Prices $896 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Homeowners 2.3 2016-20 3 0
Maintaining
Housing Affordability for Homeowners by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Overall Housing Cost Burden 28% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Renters 32% 2016-20 3 10 Not Applicable*
Rent Burdened Households 47% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Renters by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Homeownership Rate 68% 2016-20 3 -1
Decreasing
Homeownership Rate by Race/Ethnicity 2016-20 0 10 Not Applicable*
Vacant Housing Units 9% 2016-20 3 1
Increasing
Homeless Persons 0 10 Not Applicable*
Serious Crimes 170 2020 3 -1
Decreasing
Violent Crimes 24 2020 3 1
Increasing
Victims of Domestic Violence 57 2020 0 -1
Decreasing
Incarceration Rates 8.7 2020 0 -1
Decreasing
Incarceration Rates, by Race/Ethnicity 2018 0 10 Not Applicable*
Arrest Rates 130.1 2020 2 -1
Decreasing
Arrest Rates, by Race/Ethnicity 2020 0 10 Not Applicable*
Per-Capita Spending for Local Government $3,731 2019 0 1
Increasing
Female to Male Earnings Ratio 0.68 2016-20 3 0
Maintaining
*No or multiple regional values for this indicator


Worse than NYS by 10% or more
Up to 10% worse than NYS
Equal to or better than NYS





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